Shot of the Week 2019/03 – Flamingo Family Amusements at Hastings

Posted on 23rd January 2019 by Admin under Adapted lens, Comment, Location, Photograph, Software, Technique
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It had been a bit of a strange week, mainly as I was unwell and did not take as many photos as I might otherwise have done.  Fortunately, I was feeling fit enough for a camera club outing to Hastings at the weekend, where I eventually took my photo of the week. A night time shot of the Flamingo amusement arcade.

Flamingo amusement arcade at Hastings
Flamingo Family Amusements

I am well aware of what is likely to happen were I to put this image in front of a camera club judge. Most of the buildings which I photographed were facing onto the street and I had little option other than to shoot them head on. It turned out not to be a particularly interesting viewpoint. The arcade is separate from the surrounding buildings, so I was able to take it at an angle. That does mean that I could get some pleasing diagonals but it does mean the corner post on the right becomes very obvious.

Many judges, although by no means all, would comment that it acts as a division and they can see two images. Is it really such a problem? I do not think so. For me, the principal part of the image is the doorway. The post, while indeed prominent, helps to keep the eye in the frame and emphasises the door. I like to think that it helps invite the view to walk down the short path to the door. Sometimes I find that judges critique by rote and consequently overlook what the photographer has set out to achieve.

The day at Hastings had not started well.  I had attempted to do some long exposures, but had struggled to get the camera set up.  Partly that was due to the cold wind which did not help the fiddly business of attaching the filter and adjusting the camera settings.  I had also neglected to take my tripod with me and was relying on a Gorillapod to do the honours instead.  Having triggered the first exposure, I watched as the camera wobbled in the wind.  Eventually, after a few more nondescript exposures, I gave up and headed off in the direction of the pier.

Hastings Pier with a storm drain outlet in the foreground
Hastings Pier

This shot is created from seven separate images which I stitched into a panorama using Lightroom. I liked the symmetry between the pier and the storm drain outlet in the foreground. The brooding sky contrasting with the luminance of the sea I also find pleasing.

The morning turned out to have the best light which I had largely squandered with my futile long exposure attempts.  After lunch, conditions turned into a dull, overcast winter’s day.  I struggled to find inspiration. Sometimes, it goes like that.  Once it would have bothered me if things were not going well.  Nowadays, I simply wait to see what happens next.  You are potentially only ever one shot away from a good image.  It is the unexpected nature of photography which, for me at least, makes it so fascinating.

Most people called it a day as the sun went down unseen behind a thick bank of cloud.  I decided to stay on for a bit to see what the evening in Hastings would offer.  Despite being a Saturday, or maybe because it was, many places were still open. There were plenty of opportunities for some night time shots.  The lack of a tripod was not a problem, with a fast lens there was more than enough light to shoot handheld.  I will admit, though, the exposure for my chosen shot, f/2 @1/55 and ISO 200 did surprise me. Initially I thought that the ISO would need to be higher.

Overall, I enjoyed the trip to Hastings. There is a lot to see and I did not get to all of it. The town is definitely worth a return visit.

Alternative Shot

In order to have a selection of images for my shot each week, I like to have a variety of different subjects from which to choose. To that end, some are “safety shots”, available to fall back on if need be. A few years ago, I did a photo-a-day project. While it helped my photography immensely, but I did find that flowers became a frequent standby subject. This time around, I determined that where possible I would not rely on such images.

Narcissus

It is not an absolute rule. Besides, flowers have their own beauty and there is no reason to avoid them entirely. These narcissus are home grown and are a harbinger of spring. My health issues meant that I was not venturing out much, so I needed something. These flowers were at their peak and were a perfect opportunity to ensure I would have something.

My chosen lens was an elderly Vivitar manual focus 55 f/2.8 macro lens. It is probably at least 35 years old. I mounted it on a Sony A7 II using an inexpensive adapter. I do enjoy giving new life to these lenses and using them on camera bodies for which they were never intended. Many of them have a character which is often missing from modern lenses. Since I rarely use autofocus for macro work, its absence was actually a benefit. I know that the point of focus is not going to move from where I set it. Despite its age, the lens is very sharp although it appears to be optimised for macro. It does go all the way out to infinity, but there is little point. There are other lenses which perform better at longer focussing distances.

At first, I had the lens stopped down but I was not finding that satisfactory. There was too much depth of field and the results were fairly ordinary. Eventually, I opened the lens to its maximum f/2.8 aperture and concentrated on just one bloom. I liked the resulting out of focus effect, but it was not enough. In Lightroom, I applied some negative Clarity but still wanted more. I made a quick round trip to Photoshop where I applied the Glamour Glow filter which is in the Color Efex application from the Nik Collection. I find many of the Color Efex filters to be redundant, but Glamour Glow is useful on occasion to help lift an image.

Shot of the Week 2019/02 – Light on the Door

Posted on 14th January 2019 by Admin under Comment, Photograph, Uncategorized
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My selection for this, the second week of my year long project, crept up on me.  It was certainly not the one which I thought I would end up using.  But as I looked at the options, I found the way the light played on this door in Canterbury Cathedral appealing.  Together with the texture in the stonework and the ancient wood, it stood out from the rest.  For me, it has a magic which the others do not quite have.  And what is photography, if it is not all about the light?

Dappled light in Canterbury Cathedral
Light on the Door

Whitstable

I had spent a couple of days in Whitstable, which is a favourite location.  Especially in the middle of winter when it is quiet and the weather can be dramatic.  The harbour is not the most picturesque, although that is part of its charm.  It is, after all, most definitely a fishing harbour with boats and equipment dotted around.  Next to it, there is an industrial facility which manufactures aggregates.  That too lends a certain look and makes the area unique in my experience.

Fishing boats in Whitstable Harbour

An alternate view of the harbour.  This is not the optimum view in my experience, which is further to the left.  On this occasion there was a large trawler moored near where I wanted to stand and partially blocked the view.

Whitstable Harbour

A shot of the sea front which shows how the aggregate works dominate the area and give it an distinctive and unmistakeable look.

Whitstable Sea Front

A further shot featuring the aggregate works.  There is an odd conjunction with the beach huts and boats which are used for leisure activities.

Work and Play

The sea plays an important part in the life of Whitstable and the aggregate works are an important source of employment, but there is more to the town than that. There are a number of interesting shops shops which add to the atraction of the place.

One of Whitstable’s quaint shops

Brexit

Oh, how this next image nearly made it to shot of the week. Not for any aesthetic merit, but as a commentary of the times we in Britain find ourselves in. Never have I known such a divisive or disruptive topic as Brexit. It is unbelievable that with little more than two months to go, no one knows what will happen on the day the country is due to leave the European Union.

It is too early to know what history will make of it all, as nothing has been decided. I doubt whether it will be too kind on the politicians who are largely responsible for the situation. They all seem to know what they do not want, yet Parliament as a whole seems incapable on agreeing the way forward. Maybe my pessimism is unfounded, but it is difficult to see how a positive outcome, whatever is decided, will be reached.

This flag has been flying at Whitstable Harbour for some considerable time and I can well understand the reasons for the sentiment it expresses. The flag itself is more worn that it appears in the photograph. As a metaphor for how tired and jaded many people are of the Brexit process, it is apt.

A flag supporting the Brexit Leave campaign.
Brexit Flag

Herne Bay

I like quirky images, even though they are unlikely to do well in competition. It is not the sort of thing which judges usually look for, but I do enjoy the juaxtaposition of different elements which do not necssarily fit with each other. Here I have shown Herne Pay Pier through the windows of a pavilion on the sea front.

This was another shot which nearly became my final choice for the week.

Herne Bay Pier seen through a Window

Canterbury Cathedral

Visiting Canterbury on the way home, I went into the cathedral. During the middle of a sunny winter’s day, warm light floods in through the windows on the southern side. It gives the Quire, in particular, a wonderful look. So it was with some initial disappointment that, after paying to enter, I discovered that scaffolding filled the western end for a four year renovation project. The payback was that I was able to take photographs of the works. Two men in a cherrypicker examining the celing of the cathedral while others look on is not something you see everyday.

Glory to God in the Highest

Other parts of the cathedral were unaffected by the works. I finish with three shots. The Martyrdom, the location of Thomas à Becket’s murder in 1170. The candle which marks the spot where his shrine stood until its destruction in 1538 on the orders of Henry VIII. Finally, a view of the Eastern end of the Quire.

Canterbury Cathedral – The Martyrdom
The candle marking the former position of
Thomas à Becket’s shrine
Canterbury Cathedral – Eastern end of the Quire

Shot of the Week 2019/01 – Mithras and the Girl

Posted on 6th January 2019 by Admin under Comment, Photograph
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Introduction

A few years ago, I did a Photo 365 when I took photographs every day and published the best one. While it was fun and I learnt a lot, time and opportunity were limiting factors. That was the cause of some frustration as I did not always feel that some of the results were those which I wished to show to others.  On the other hand, I did get a lot of pleasing shots which would not have happened without the incentive to go out looking for pictures.

I have recently joined a new camera club which regularly runs annual challenges for daily, weekly and monthly photos. Members can join whichever they choose, with weekly being the most popular. At the time of writing, 31 people have signed up. Give or take, that is around half the club which has elected to participate and I am am amongst that number. It has given me the incentive for 2019 to recreate the motivation of a daily project to take pictures without the need necessarily to produce something every day. The week starts at 00:00 on Monday and finishes at 23:59 the following Sunday.  During that period, or shortly after, I will publish my selection.

52 masterpieces, then? Sadly, quite probably not. The anticipation of having several potential winners from which to choose is unlikely to survive the cold experience of reality. Like many others, my photography is observational in nature and, other than camera settings, usually very little is under my direct control. There is an adage that to obtain an interesting image, it is necessary to stand in front of something interesting. I cannot disagree and it can happen in the most unlikely of places. Just as locations which should be photogenic sometimes do not turn out that way. It can also be difficult to find inspiration, especially when the light is not co-operating. Then there are the inevitable missed opportunities or camera fumbles which spoil an otherwise worthwhile grab shot. It happens to everyone, whatever their reputation.

The compensation is the serendipity when everything comes together, the satisfaction of which cannot be understated. That was a lesson which I learnt during my 365 project. If I go out with a camera, more often than not I will return with a few decent images. Consequently, I look upon photography as an adventure, the enjoyment derived from not knowing what I will find. What I hope for is a series of shots which have some form of interest. Hopefully there will also be a few which transcend to the higher realms.

I intend to publish weekly photographs on this blog, a further benefit as my posts have not been that frequent of late. Where appropriate, I will include details of how I got the shot. Optionally I will also include other images which I considered when making my choice.

The quest, not to mention the fun, begins.

The First Image – Mithras and the Girl

Mithras and the Girl
Mithras and the Girl

For the past month or so, courtesy of a stonking Black Friday deal, I have had a new camera. Maybe I will write more about that on another occasion.  So far, I have not always given the camera an easy ride during my initial tryouts. On many of the occasions when I have it, there has been little light. Which is exactly what happened with my first “Shot of the Week”.  It was taken at the London Mithraeum, the ruins of an ancient Roman temple dedicated to the worship of the god Mithras. Exposure was 1/40 @ f/2, ISO 3200.

Discovered in 1954, the temple has been reconstructed in its original location as it was originally found. The site is under the new Bloomberg European headquarters building in the City of London., with Bloomberg going to some trouble and expense to make visits an immersive experience. The head which you see on the left is a replica of a sculpture depicting Mithras found during the archaeological excavations.  It is illuminated internally, which caused some problems with the exposure due to the contrast with the less well lit areas.  To give an idea of the problems, I have included the image as shot.  Lightroom has recovered an amazing amount of detail from the sculpture which appears to have blown highlights.

Mithras and the girl, before post capture processing
Mithras and the Girl – original capture

At the start of this post, I was talking about discovery and the unexpected in my photography.  When I set out from home, I had no idea that I would return with an image which might turn out to be one of my shots of the year.

Autumn at Toys Hill

Posted on 16th November 2018 by Admin under Adapted lens, Comment, Landscape, Location, Software, Technique
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A few days ago, when the sun last shone in this part of the world, I made a trip to Toys Hill.  It is a large area of woodland and was one of the first properties which the National Trust acquired.  A so called “hurricane”, in reality an exceptionally strong wind, devastated the area in 1987.  I recall visiting shortly afterwards and a great many old trees had been toppled by the gale.  Reports say that only 5% survived the onslaught.  The area was unusually open at that time; it was a surreal experience.  Fortunately, nature always finds a way to recover, although I suspect there has also been some active management to help it along.  Today the area is again home to dense woodland.

Light in the trees

Late afternoon sunlight shines through autumnal leaves

I went with the specific intention of capturing the late afternoon sun on the autumnal leaves.  That proved to be challenging as there were few places where the light was breaking through.  The woodland covers a large area, although the sun’s position determined my route through as I needed to stay on the west side.  Eventually I found what I was looking for.  Looking back down a path towards the sun, light was glinting from the upper branches of some tall birch trees.  Rather than falling onto the leaves, the light was shining through them which imparted a pleasing glow.

Some Technical Information

I took my Sony A7 Mk II, a camera for which I own no native lenses.  Instead, everything I use is attached via an adapter.  As I recounted recently, I use a Sigma MC-11 for my Canon EF lenses, but I bought the camera mainly to mount vintage manual focus lenses.  An application for which it is well suited.  I started the afternoon with a Minolta MC  58 f/1.4 attached, but that proved a trifle too long for some shots.  After a while, I switched to a Minolta MD 35-70 f/3.5 macro zoom which gave me the versatility I required.

In the world of classic lenses, primes are the preferred option as they are sharper and have fewer distortions.  Zoom lenses are definitely the inferior choice.  Maybe that is true for some budget models, but the Minolta has an Read More

London to Brighton Veteran Car Run 2018

Posted on 4th November 2018 by Admin under Equipment, Event, Photograph, Technique
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London to Brighton Veteran Car Run

Enjoying the drive during the 2018 London to Brighton Veteran Car Run.

 

The first Sunday in November always brings the renowned London to Brighton Veteran Car Run.  It is the world’s oldest motoring event which has run continuously.  A widely held belief is that the event celebrates the abolition of the legal requirement for someone with a red flag to walk in front of a motorised vehicle.  In fact, the run marks the day when the maximum permitted speed rose from 4 to 12 mph.  The need for a man with the flag having been abolished some years earlier in 1878.  Nevertheless, the start of the 1896 run did see the symbolic burning of a red flag.

November is not an ideal time of the year to drive over 50 miles in vintage cars.  Many are open to the elements and they break down.  A lot.  Making repairs with cold hands, especially if it is raining, cannot be much fun.  If only the parliamentarians of yore had had the good sense to pass their reforming Act during the summer.  Only cars manufactured before 1905 are eligible to participate.  It makes for an unusual spectacle, seeing the old timers taking to the road.  It helps that the organisers encourage participants to wear period attire, although many don’t.

The route passes close to my home and I try to photograph the event whenever possible.  It is worth mentioning the equipment I used, as I suspect it had a bearing on the results I obtained.  The camera was my Canon 7D Mk 1, set to wide area continuous autofocus.  It was actually the lens, though, which probably made the difference.   Being a white Canon 70-200 f/4 , it seems to have attracted the attention of many of the participants.  Maybe I looked professional and stood out from the other Read More

Sigma Resurrection

Posted on 29th September 2018 by Admin under Adapted lens, Comment, Equipment
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Sigma 18-35 @ 35

My local woods, taken at the long end of a vintage Sigma 18-35 lens set to f/8.  I rescued the lens from obscurity in a cupboard where it had languished for 14 years after becoming incompatible with Canon’s newst cameras.

 

A New Era

With Canon’s and Nikon’s recent announcements of their new full frame mirrorless camera systems, complete with new mounts, adapted lenses are in vogue.  It is the only solution which the two companies can offer in an attempt to retain existing DSLR customers as they transition over the next few years.  It is a journey I have recently started, although in my case I am adapting my EF lenses onto a Sony A7 II.  Not, I dare say, something which Canon had in mind.  The irony is that for years I used the lenses on crop sensor cameras and always thought I would eventually switch to full frame.  I just never imagined that the camera concerned would not be manufactured by Canon.

The Sony A7 II is a recent acquisition.  My main intention being to use it with my manual focus lenses, many of which are at least 30-40 years old.  I do not intend to purchase any native Sony lenses but with a purely electronic interface between camera and lens, it is possible to mount EF lenses via an adapter.  The one I chose is a Sigma MC-11 which seems to work reasonably well with my Canon lenses.  Officially, it is only compatible with a specified selection of Sigma’s own offerings but that does not appear to matter.  In theory, Sigma could disable compatibility with other manufacturers’ lenses via a firmware upgrade.  That would be a counterintuitive measure which would only serve to deprive them of an income stream.  This way, they are making sales without any responsibility should a particular lens not work properly.

An Old Lens

Many years ago, 1999 to be precise and when everyone was still shooting with film, I bought a Sigma 18-35 f/3.5-4.5 Aspherical zoom with a Canon EF mount.  At the time, it was well regarded.  There were a number of positive reviews and the price was relatively modest for such a lens.  The shop I bought it from was Vic Odden’s at London Bridge, which closed in 2005.  I have fond memories of Vic.  He was a true gentleman and sold me the first camera I bought with my own money.  His advice was always reliable and his sudden death in 1997 during a holiday in New Zealand had saddened many.

In those days, Canon and Sigma were locked in a game of cat and mouse.  Canon never released the specification of the EF mount and Sigma had reverse engineered it.  For whatever reason, they had not implemented the interface between lens and camera in full.  Possibly to avoid patent infringement, but I do not really know.  At the time I acquired the lens, Canon had just released its EOS 3 camera and it was known that the two were incompatible.  Read More

Brighton Pride 2018

Posted on 12th August 2018 by Admin under Event, Photograph, Street photography, Uncategorized
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Brighton, Pride weekend and some of the most extrovert people on the planet were putting on a show.  It was an opportunity too good to miss.  Not having been to a Pride event previously, I went with a group organised by the Royal Photographic Society.  That was definitely a good move.  The parade started at 11:00, but it is worthwhile to arrive earlier as it is possible to walk around the assembly area on the seafront.  There are a lot of people crowding the parade route and it is far easier to get shots beforehand.

 

Pride participant

A portrait taken before conditions became too bright for my 56 f/1.2 lens at a wide aperture
(Click on the thumbnail for a larger image)

 

Anticipating that it would be busy, my plan was to use my Fuji X-E2 and 56 f/1.2 lens, a combination I have previously used for street photography.  The theory was that I would shoot at around f/2 to throw any distractions in the background out of focus.  Unfortunately, theory did not translate into practice for a couple of reasons.  The event took place in the middle of a heatwave and conditions were very bright.  The mechanical shutter on the X-E2 has a fastest speed of 1/4000 sec.  Combined with a minimum ISO of 200, as the sun climbeed ver higher in the sky, I soon found that the camera was over exposing by around a stop.  It was only afterwards that I realised that I could have switched to the camera’s electronic shutter which to goes to 1/32,000 sec.

 

"Ladies"

These “ladies” were a popular subject
(Click on the thumbnail for a larger image)

 

Trading a smaller aperture for focal length versatility, I switched to my 18-55 f/2.8 – f/4 XF lens and shot wide open.  Fuji offers bundles which include this lens, but its capabilities are far beyond those normally found in kits.  Mine remains on the camera for the majority of the time and it is my most used lens.  There was another problem, though, the autofocus system.  Most of the time it functioned well, but occasionally either it would not focus or took a second or so which meant that I missed some shots.  I suspect that the issue was that I had set the camera to use the central Read More

Amateur Photographer of the Year Competition – Round 1 Result

Posted on 19th June 2018 by Admin under Amateur Photographer of the Year Competition 2018, APOY, Comment, Location, Photograph
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I did it on the spur of the moment, a last minute decision.  A couple of days before entries closed for the first round, I became aware of the Amateur Photographer of the Year (APOY) competition.  Actually, that is not strictly true.  The UK based Amateur Photographer magazine has organised it for several years and I have occasionally entered it.  The last time was over three years ago.  Despite some success with my shot that time, I had not participated since.  (The story of that photo is worthy of a post of its own and I have an article in preparation.)

The APOY Competition

The competition is held over eight rounds over the course of the year, each with a different theme.  The top 30 images receive points, 30 for first place and down to 1 for 30th.  Readers of the magazine receive a free entry, although by paying a fee it is possible to submit up to three images in each round.  Only the highest placed one will receive any points, though.  That is a change from last year.  A very good nature photographer was successful with multiple entries in some of the rounds.  He racked up sufficient points in his speciality to win the overall APOY competition by a wide margin.

Sigma sponsors the competition and the winner of each APOY round receives some of the company’s gear with a £1,000 value.  The person with the highest tally when all eight rounds are complete is the overall winner and receives £2,000 worth of equipment in prizes.  As a contest, it is real test of photographic ability and diversity.  And there are some worthwhile prizes, to boot.

My entry to the APOY competition. A horse and carriage appears out of the mist on Sark.

Misty Morning on Sark
(Click on the image for a larger version)

 

What changed this time?  The theme for the first round was “Best of British” for photos taken within the British Isles and I had an image which I thought could do well.  Looking at the list of topics, I have others which I thought might be appropriate for the later rounds.  Being a reader of the magazine, I had nothing to lose by entering and considered that it would be an interesting challenge.  Until last year, it was only possible to submit one entry per round and I decided to stick with that ethos.  The process to determine which of my photos would succeed best is certainly a challenge which prove to be instructive.

Strangely, for the first round, I was more concerned with semantics than aesthetics.  My shot, above, comes from Sark which is one of the Channel Islands and closer to France than the United Kingdom.  It is British but not part of the United Read More

Is Swirly Bokeh Possible From a £23 Lens?

Posted on 1st June 2018 by Admin under Adapted lens, Comment, Equipment, Location, Photograph, Technique
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In my previous article, I looked at the performance of my Russian made Helios 44M lens when used for distant subjects.  In this follow-up post, I will look at how well the lens does in rendering out of focus backgrounds.  That might not have been a primary consideration for either the designers or the original users.   In the years after the second World War, it became the standard lens supplied with Zenit film cameras.  These days, it is more likely that the subject will be close and the background deliberately thrown out of focus for a bokeh effect.  That is the current fashion and exploits the features of the lens which many find desirable.  In particular, the Helios 44 has achieved renown for swirly out of focus areas.

The link to my earlier blog article: How sharp can a £23 lens be?

Helios 44M @f/2.8

Snowdrops at Compton Valence (Helios 44M @ f/2.8)
(Click on the thumbnail to view a larger image)

 

Shooting For a Bokeh Effect

What, then, to shoot? To maximise the out focus effectively means positioning a subject close to the camera for optimum background blur.  One of the subject clichés for this type of work is flowers and I mainly went with that.  To compensate for a lack of originality, I told myself this was purely a test which I did not expect to yield any portfolio worthy images.  In the event, the snowdrop shot above is one which turned out better than expected.  It is a decent enough image although I would be unlikely to want to use it in a competition.

My technique when making these images left much to be desired. Handholding a manual focus lens at close distances is always going to be hit and miss.  With the emphasis very much on miss.  Achieving an acceptably sharp shot is difficult simply because it is almost impossible to maintain the distance between lens and subject after focusing.  It is slightly easier with a mirrorless camera which has focus peaking, in this case my Fuji X-E2.  The 1.5 crop factor meant that I had a full frame focal length equivalent view of a 87mm lens.

That was useful for the type of shot I was creating, although a hindrance when trying to produce swirly backgrounds.  .  Put simply, Read More

How Sharp Can a £23 Lens Be?

Posted on 13th February 2018 by Admin under Adapted lens, Comment, Equipment
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Is it really possible to get good results from a lens based on a design dating from 1928 and produced by the Russians at the height of the Cold War?  There has long been the suggestion that Soviet production standards were not particularly high during that period.  Supposedly, there was significant sample variation and defective lenses could get through quality control.  Suffice to say, every manufacturing process has a level of inconsistency.  Even today, lenses from the same production line in a modern factory will not perform identically.  What hope, then, for the Helios 44?  A lens made by the bucketload and which was as cheap as chips.

St Catherine's Chapel through the trees

St Catherine’s Chapel – Final shot
(Click on the image for a larger version)

 

What follows is not really a lens test.  I simply wanted to see how the lens performed in a specific circumstances and that is what I report here.  Shooting resolution test charts does not hold much attraction.  For me, it is the look and technical quality of the final image which matters.

Background

The Helios 44 has a 58 mm focal length and a maximum aperture of f/2.  It is based on the 90 year old Carl Zeiss Biotar design.  It appeared in many versions and was the standard lens for the Zenit range of SLRs.  Due to their low cost, those cameras were the introduction to photography for many people in the heyday of film. Literally millions of the lenses were produced over a period which spanned decades.

The original Carl Zeiss factory was in Jena.  It ended up behind the Iron Curtain in East Germany after the Second World War.  Having access to the tooling and the remaining personnel who did not flee to the West at the end of the conflict, the Russians had a basis from Read More